June 2, 2008

Luto por la muerte de Yves Saint-Laurent

Por: Manuel Clavell Carrasquillo en extranjería

ives

Un homme qui aimait la femme
LE MONDE | 02.06.08 | 09h36 • Mis à jour le 02.06.08 | 09h36

Les femmes qui suivent de trop près la mode, prévenait Yves Saint Laurent, courent un grand danger. Celui de perdre leur nature profonde, leur style, leur élégance naturelle.” L’élégance, c’est une façon de se mouvoir, de savoir s’adapter à toutes les circonstances de la vie : “Sans élégance de cœur, il n’y a pas d’élégance”, affirmait-il sans détour. Les modes passent, le style est éternel, la mode est futile, le style pas. Ajoutant : “Quand on se sent bien dans un vêtement, tout peut arriver. Un bon vêtement, c’est un passeport pour le bonheur.”

Celui qui se disait non pas couturier mais “artisan, fabricant de bonheur”, a inventé le style Saint Laurent, intemporel, une élégance Rive Gauche très parisienne reconnaissable entre toutes. C’est la sobriété et l’allure d’un tailleur-pantalon noir, à la coupe impeccable, porté avec une blouse à nœud lavallière en voile transparent et des talons aiguilles. Un subtil mariage masculin-féminin qui exacerbe la sensualité et suggère le mystère.

“L’idée d’une femme en costume d’homme n’a cessé de grandir, de s’approfondir, de s’imposer comme la marque même d’une femme d’aujourd’hui, raconte-t-il. Je pense que, s’il fallait représenter la femme des années 1970 un jour dans le temps, c’est une femme en pantalon qui s’imposerait car… le pantalon est devenu une des pièces maîtresses de la garde-robe de la femme moderne.”

Faisant écho à la radicale mutation du vestiaire initié par les “garçonnes” dans les années 1920, qui adoptèrent les codes masculins, Yves Saint Laurent a réinterprété les vêtements homme, s’amusant de l’androgynie. En 1962, quatre ans après la fameuse ligne trapèze qui le rendit célèbre chez Dior, il dessine un premier smoking porté par Catherine Deneuve, et un caban en laine à boutons dorés avec un pantalon cigarette en shantung blanc façon officier, une marinière, une tunique, une chasuble de curé acier qu’il associe à une jupe fourreau en velours noir. Suivront le trench, le blazer, la saharienne, la parka, les cuissardes.

Des pièces indémodables, d'”un classicisme qui est sans époque et de notre époque”, dira-il, et qu’il réinvente à chaque saison. Les cinquante versions de son Smoking forever (“Smoking pour toujours”, titre de l’exposition, consacrée, en 2006, aux 50 modèles à la pièce phare de la garde robe Saint Laurent), illustrent ses jeux avec ce costume d’apparat.

Pour l’étoffe, son choix se porte dès 1962 sur le grain de poudre et le satin noir. Option qu’il maintient d’année en année, avec l’alpaga, le velours et quelques variantes, pour se concentrer sur les modèles : smoking bermuda avec blouse de cigaline (1968), smoking combinaison de gabardine (1975), ou smoking spencer sur dentelle noire (1978), mais aussi robe-smoking (1983), manteau-smoking (1984), smoking-kimono (1992), smoking-knickers (1993), cape-smoking (1998), etc.

Déclinaisons surprises attendues chaque saison, qui, loin de masquer la féminité, l’électrisent. Un style androgyne qui accompagne l’émancipation des femmes, de tout âge et de tout bord, jusqu’à l’écriture de la mode du XXIe siècle, alors que se multiplient les collections uniques s’adressant aux deux sexes.

NOBLE PORT DE TÊTE

A la sobriété de ses tenues de jour, il oppose toutes les excentricités du soir, nourries d’exotisme. Puisant dans l’imaginaire poétique de l’Orient, il s’inspire du Rajasthan comme du Sud marocain, détourne les sarouels et pantalons de zouave en tourbillon de mousseline, marie gilets, nœuds papillons et voiles transparents. Il voyage avec ses étoffes au gré des exotismes, brode d’or et de jais des boléros comme les vestes bijoux des toreros, dessine une collection baptisée “Ballets russes”, des Tziganes en jupes corolles, des cosaques bottées, et des mini-robes bambara piquées de plumes et de perles, en hommage à l’Afrique.

Saint Laurent adore les chapeaux qui signent une tenue, canotier, feutre, cagoule à visière, casquette, béret, turban et autres capelines. Par-dessus tout, il raffole des panamas chavirés portés avec ses tailleurs pantalons, et des petites toques calots, façon tarbouche des contreforts de l’Atlas. Pour les nuits de gala, ses longs fourreaux qui épousent les courbes, ses nuages de mousseline légers comme un souffle, sont plus que jamais d’actualité.

Sa passion pour la peinture – dont il dit, dans l’introduction du catalogue de l’exposition “Yves Saint Laurent dialogue avec l’art” (2004), “mon propos n’a pas été de me mesurer aux maîtres, tout au plus de les approcher et de tirer des leçons de leur génie” – le conduit à rendre hommage à Mondrian (1965), au pop art (1966) et à son ami Andy Warhol, à Braque (1970,1988), Picasso (1979,1988), Matisse (1980), ou encore à Bonnard, Van Gogh (1988). Quarante-deux modèles qui témoignent de sa virtuosité et de son respect pour la beauté.

Yves Saint Laurent est un homme qui aime la femme. Il parlait de son métier comme d’un “dialogue amoureux avec tous les sortilèges des enroulements de tissus”, de cette “femme nue qu’il doit habiller sans porter atteinte à la liberté de ses mouvements naturels”. Dans ses esquisses, son trait caresse la silhouette. Toujours avec respect, Saint Laurent exalte ce qui lui est propre, allonge les jambes, souligne la taille. Le port de tête est noble. L’élégance est lâchée comme un baiser secret.

Florence Evin

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